Income gaps based on educational at-level reflect monetary incentives that encourage someone to invest in education. Post-training earnings gaps are the intersection of supply and demand curves for trained workers. Differences in relative incomes between countries reflect a number of factors, for example. B the demand for qualifications in the labour market, minimum wage legislation, the strength of trade unions, collective agreements, the supply of workers with different levels of education, the work experience of workers with a high and low level of education, the distribution of employment between occupations and the relative incidence of part-time and seasonal work (OECD, 2007). The magnitude of BC requires separate treatment, as it is more difficult to determine than it appears. Such coverage is not linked to union membership, as a contract likely covers all workers in a given unit, whether they are members of the union that negotiated it or not. However, in Britain and the United States, it is quite clear who is covered by a collective agreement. America, in particular, uses the language of «released» and «unde released» employees (introduced by the Fair Labor Standards Act 1938), but the former (general managers and supervisors) are not covered by CB. If there is a collective agreement, the sites concerned and the staff concerned are clearly defined.
In some other countries, the situation is also clear. In countries like Sweden, where union membership is very high and has many groups of employees who could be considered exempt in the United States, coverage is also extremely high. But in France, for example, a collective agreement is less clearly defined. Many French trade unions formally refused to sign contracts, as this was contrary to communist ideology; they were covered in practice, even if they were not signatories. Similarly, we know that French trade union membership is a poor indication of workers` trade union membership. France is, in addition to Germany, a case where collective agreements are generally extended to an entire sector to cover undertakings and workers not directly involved (Traxler 1996). The Wage Indicator Foundation, through its global dataset, has provided the information that could not be imagined ten years ago. Agreements reached in different parts of the world can be scanned at global level. In addition to the use of graphical tools, it is possible to research different topics such as maternity rights, social security, occupational safety and health, workers` well-being and much more to assess the progress made, but also the challenges that can then be met by learning from countries that are relatively better off in their respective thematic practices. So the tool is good for trade unions, employers` organisations, academic institutions and even students….